What is the principle of microcontroller? How is the microcontroller applied?
The principle of microcontroller issues operation commands to each part and the operator performs the corresponding operation after receiving the command, and stores the operation results in the corresponding registers.
I. Introduction of Microcontroller
A microcontroller is also known as a microcontroller (MCU). It is not a chip with logical functions, but a computer system integrated into the chip. It is equivalent to a microcomputer. Compared to an ordinary computer, a microcontroller lacks only I/O devices. Simply put: the chip becomes a computer. It is light in weight, small in size and cheap in price. Development and application provide very convenient conditions. At the same time, the best choice to understand the principles and structure of computers is to learn to use microcontrollers. Microcontrollers are used in a wide range of applications, such as real-time industrial control, communication devices, smart meters, home appliances, navigation systems, etc. Once various electronic products use microcontrollers, they can add some specific functions to the products and achieve updates. Ordinary appliances with specific microcontroller modules added can be called: smart electronics.
Microcontroller recommended: STM8S105K4T6C
II. Hardware characteristics of microcontrollers
1. the current mainstream microcontrollers include CPU. 2KB capacity RAM. 2 16-bit timer/counter. 128KB capacity ROM. 4 8-bit parallel ports. ADC/DAC. full-duplex serial port. EEPROM. SPI. I2C. ISP. IAP, etc…
2. simple system structure, easy to use, and modularization.
3. high reliability of the microcontroller, which can work up to 10^6~10^7 hours without failure.
4. strong processing function and fast speed.
5. low voltage, low power consumption, easy to produce portable products.
6. strong control function.
7. Strong environmental adaptability.
III. The principle of microcontroller
The microcontroller consists of three main parts: the operator, controller and registers.
Among them, the calculator consists of an arithmetic logic unit (ALU), accumulator, and registers. First, the accumulator and registers input two 8-bit data into the ALU, then the ALU completes the logical operation of the source data, and finally stores the operation results in the registers; the controller consists of a program counter, an instruction register, an instruction translator, a time sequence generator, and an operation controller, which is the organization that coordinates the operation between all parts of the whole system; the registers mainly include accumulator A. Data register DR. instruction register IR. instruction translator ID. program counter PC. address register AR, etc. Inside the microprocessor. Controller.
The registers are interconnected, and the controller issues operation commands to each part and the operator performs the corresponding operation after receiving the command, and stores the operation results in the corresponding registers.
IV. Application of microcontroller
The microcontroller has penetrated into all fields of our daily life, from home appliances, and instruments to medical devices. In aerospace, there are microcontrollers. Once a microcontroller is added to a particular product, then the original product comes closer to the Internet and gets a smart prefix.
The specific applications of microcontrollers in various fields are as follows.
1. in the field of instruments, once a microcontroller is controlled, then the instrument becomes digital, intelligent, miniaturized and its functions more powerful.
2. in the field of household appliances, where microcontroller control of household appliances such as rice cookers, refrigerators, air conditioners, color TVs, stereos, etc. is widely realized.
3. In the field of network communication, cell phones. Small program control switch. Building automatic communication call systems, etc. are realized with microcontroller control, and microcontrollers generally have communication interfaces that enable communication devices to easily communicate with computers for data communication.
4. In the field of industrial control, microcontrollers can form a variety of control systems, for example, the intelligent management of factory assembly lines. Intelligent control of elevators. Various alarm systems. Forming secondary control systems with computer networks.
5. In the field of medical equipment, microcontrollers have also greatly realized their value, and have been widely used in various analytical instruments. Monitors. Hospital bed call system. Medical equipment such as medical ventilators.
6. In modular systems, microcontrollers can implement specific functions of modular applications without requiring operators to understand their internal structure, greatly reducing the size. Simplify the circuitry and reduce the damage rate. Error rate.
7. in the field of automotive electronics, microcontrollers have been widely used in engine controllers. GPS navigation systems. ABS anti-lock systems. Braking systems.
8. In addition to the above applications, microcontrollers have played a role in more or less in the fields of industry and commerce, finance, education, logistics, etc.